Canaan was incorporated in 1739, has a population of 1,060 and covers an area of 33 square miles. It is governed by a Town Meeting and a Board of Selectmen.
Lee Kellogg Elementary School has 130 pupils enrolled and the 50 high school students from Canaan attend the Housatonic Valley Regional High School. There is a post office located on Miner Street and there is one library, D.M.Hunt Library.
Canaan is a national Historic District. Among the sites to see in Canaan are the South Canaan Meeting House and the Great Falls.
Canaan is home to two state parks: Housatonic State Forest and Robbins Swamp Wildlife Preserve & The Appalachian Trail. There is a town recreation area and the Housatonic River supplies exciting canoeing and kayaking. Cultural organizations include the Music Mountain and the Summer Chamber Music Shed.
There are two churches in the Canaan area: Falls Village Congregational Church and St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church.